Great Political Thinkers Plato to the Present(Full Version).pdf - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. Get this from a library! Great political thinkers: Plato to the present.. [William Ebenstein]. [Matching item] Great political thinkers: Plato to the present /. - 3rd ed. [Matching item] Great political thinkers: Plato to the present / William Ebenstein, Alan Ebenstein. [Matching item] Great political thinkers: Plato to the present / William Ebenstein, Alan O.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration Required]|
PDF download for Book Reviews: Great Political Thinkers: Plato to the Present. By, Article Information. No Access. Article Information. Volume: 13 issue: 3. online ebook library. download now great political thinkers plato present pdf file for free from our online library great political thinkers plato to the present alan. read online: great political thinkers plato present pdf reading is a hobby that can not be denied, because reading is add knowledge about many things. great.
These differing objections can be explained by the abstract and theoretical ideologies of Plato contrasting and clashing with Aristotle's scientific and actual ideologies. They each had ideas of how to improve existing societies during their individual lifetimes. It is necessary to look at several areas of each theory to seek the difference in each. His aristocratic background and orientation marked his antagonism to democracy.
A famous disciple of Socrates whose teacher's death in the hands of the Athenian government and the defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian war by Sparta deepened his antidemocratic predilections because of the attendant crisis so generated in the city states.
Plato explains that our senses cannot be trusted when observing and goes on to conclude that the only way of realising absolute truth is through reason.
This ability to recognise and understand the true forms of things is the central concept that establishes who holds the ruling powers in his kallipolis. Plato states that for a city to be ideal it has to be just and 'good', and that 'good' can only be realised if the city is lead by people able to see the true forms of things and understand true knowledge. Ultimately philosophers must become kings, or kings must become philosophers, known as the guardian class.
The rules selected by these guardian kings would be enforced by the Auxiliaries class, men of courage and intelligence, whilst the majority of people would make up the lower end of society, the producer class. His kallipolis is best described as an aristocracy. Plato recommends a form of communism for leaders. They are to live together and would not own any private property beyond what is absolutely necessary. He endorses gender egalitarianism; women belong to the ruling class and they arc equal.
He thinks that the possession of private property and nuclear families among the guardian class is bad because the purpose of the city is the good of the whole not the happiness of one class.
Both wealth and property are harmful and in Plato's ideal state, neither will exist Anele The three classes in the ideal republic are by no means castes, for membership in them is not hereditary.
Ideally, every child is to be given the highest 2 Page training that their natural capacities permit and every individual is promoted to the highest position in the state that his capacities together with his education and achievements allow him to fill adequately.
Plato states that it is not the desire of man to form a state, instead it is an inevitable need of man, for man is not self-sufficient and therefore needs to live in an organized society, and that each person has a natural talent for a certain area of work and should seek to develop it further for the benefit of the state. Education, in Plato's political theory plays a prominent role. Plato's kallipolis had within it ideas of a strong unified community and conformity.
Plato's state is based almost entirely on abstract ideas of both knowledge and nature, his approach to politics and government itself is more theoretical than actual. Therefore if a city seeks to uphold stability it must be ruled by those that are in possession of true knowledge, 'philosopher kings'.
Plato felt that the individual should subsume his or her interests to that of society in order to achieve a perfect from of government. His Republic described a utopian society where each of the three classes philosophers, warriors, and workers had its role, and governance was kept in the hands of those deemed best qualified for that responsibility, those of the "Philosopher Rulers.
His father was Nicomachus, the court physician to the Macedonian royal family. Tutored privately as all aristocratic children were, Aristotle trained first in medicine.
Considered to be a brilliant student, in B.
He stayed at Plato's Academy until about B. First he looked at whether or not the proposed leaders would govern for their own self-interests or for good of the polis, separating the candidates into the 'three parts of the city state: the very rich, the very poor; and, third, those in between these.
And because they are neither plotted against nor engage in plotting. Aristotle has objections to the very foundation of Plato's kallipolis.
Due to his more grounded approach more actual than theoretical in nature, Aristotle argues that man does not seek to make a state simply because it is essential due to man not being self-sufficient, instead it is because of an innate instinct.
He goes on to argue that the state in fact existed in nature before it was discovered by man, and that a 'human being is by nature a political animal, and anyone who is without a city-state' a Politics is not a man. It is in fact man's self-preservation instincts that directs to the organization of the masses, attempting to avoid conflict. Thus politics through a formal government was a means by which to resist chaos: it is not as Plato believes a thing of forms, rather it is an innate instinct of man.
Aristotle saw the basic political unit as the city polis , which took precedence over the family, which in turn took precedence over the individual. Aristotle said that man was a political animal by nature and thus could not avoid the challenges of politics. In his view, politics functions more as an organism than as a machine, and the role of the polis was not justice or economic stability, but 4 Page to create a space where its people could live a good life and perform beautiful acts.
These two men were great thinkers. You already recently rated this item.
Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Great political thinkers: Plato to the present. William Ebenstein Publisher: Subjects Political science. Politieke filosofie.
More like this Similar Items. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Details Additional Physical Format: Print version: Ebenstein, William, Document, Internet resource Document Type: William Ebenstein Find more information about: William Ebenstein.
Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Similar Items Related Subjects: This conceptual distinction continues to operate in political science , although some political scientists, philosophers, historians and cultural anthropologists have argued that most political action in any given society occurs outside of its state, and that there are societies that are not organized into states that nevertheless must be considered in political terms.
As long as the concept of natural order was not introduced, the social sciences could not evolve independently of theistic thinking. Since the cultural revolution of the 17th century in England, which spread to France and the rest of Europe, society has been considered subject to natural laws akin to the physical world. However, the enlightenment was an outright attack on religion, particularly Christianity.
After Voltaire, religion would never be the same again in France. As well, there was no spread of this doctrine within the New World and the advanced civilizations of the Aztec , Maya , Inca , Mohican , Delaware, Huron and especially the Iroquois.
The Iroquois philosophy in particular gave much to Christian thought of the time and in many cases actually inspired some of the institutions adopted in the United States: for example, Benjamin Franklin was a great admirer of some of the methods of the Iroquois Confederacy , and much of early American literature emphasized the political philosophy of the natives. In it Locke proposes a state of nature theory that directly complements his conception of how political development occurs and how it can be founded through contractual obligation.
Locke stood to refute Sir Robert Filmer 's paternally founded political theory in favor of a natural system based on nature in a particular given system. The theory of the divine right of kings became a passing fancy, exposed to the type of ridicule with which John Locke treated it.
Unlike Machiavelli and Hobbes but like Aquinas, Locke would accept Aristotle's dictum that man seeks to be happy in a state of social harmony as a social animal. Unlike Aquinas's preponderant view on the salvation of the soul from original sin , Locke believes man's mind comes into this world as tabula rasa.
For Locke, knowledge is neither innate, revealed nor based on authority but subject to uncertainty tempered by reason, tolerance and moderation.
According to Locke, an absolute ruler as proposed by Hobbes is unnecessary, for natural law is based on reason and seeking peace and survival for man. Industrialization and the Modern Era[ edit ] The Marxist critique of capitalism—developed with Friedrich Engels —was, alongside liberalism and fascism, one of the defining ideological movements of the twentieth century.
The industrial revolution produced a parallel revolution in political thought. Urbanization and capitalism greatly reshaped society. During this same period, the socialist movement began to form.
In the midth century, Marxism was developed, and socialism in general gained increasing popular support, mostly from the urban working class. Without breaking entirely from the past, Marx established principles that would be used by future revolutionaries of the 20th century namely Vladimir Lenin , Mao Zedong , Ho Chi Minh , and Fidel Castro.
Though Hegel 's philosophy of history is similar to Immanuel Kant 's, and Karl Marx 's theory of revolution towards the common good is partly based on Kant's view of history—Marx declared that he was turning Hegel's dialectic, which was "standing on its head", "the right side up again". In addition, the various branches of anarchism , with thinkers such as Mikhail Bakunin , Pierre-Joseph Proudhon or Peter Kropotkin , and syndicalism also gained some prominence.
In the Anglo-American world, anti-imperialism and pluralism began gaining currency at the turn of the 20th century. The Russian Revolution of and similar, albeit less successful, revolutions in many other European countries brought communism —and in particular the political theory of Leninism , but also on a smaller level Luxemburgism gradually —on the world stage.
At the same time, social democratic parties won elections and formed governments for the first time, often as a result of the introduction of universal suffrage.
In continental Europe, on the other hand, the postwar decades saw a huge blossoming of political philosophy, with Marxism dominating the field. Communism remained an important focus especially during the s and s.
Colonialism and racism were important issues that arose. In general, there was a marked trend towards a pragmatic approach to political issues, rather than a philosophical one. Much academic debate regarded one or both of two pragmatic topics: how or whether to apply utilitarianism to problems of political policy, or how or whether to apply economic models such as rational choice theory to political issues.
The rise of feminism , LGBT social movements and the end of colonial rule and of the political exclusion of such minorities as African Americans and sexual minorities in the developed world has led to feminist, postcolonial , and multicultural thought becoming significant.
This led to a challenge to the social contract by philosophers Charles W. Mills in his book The Racial Contract and Carole Pateman in her book The Sexual Contract that the social contract excluded persons of colour and women respectively.
In Anglo-American academic political philosophy, the publication of John Rawls 's A Theory of Justice in is considered a milestone. Rawls used a thought experiment , the original position , in which representative parties choose principles of justice for the basic structure of society from behind a veil of ignorance. Rawls also offered a criticism of utilitarian approaches to questions of political justice. Robert Nozick 's book Anarchy, State, and Utopia , which won a National Book Award , responded to Rawls from a libertarian perspective and gained academic respectability for libertarian viewpoints.
Most of these took elements of Marxist economic analysis, but combined them with a more cultural or ideological emphasis.
Along somewhat different lines, a number of other continental thinkers—still largely influenced by Marxism—put new emphases on structuralism and on a "return to Hegel ". Within the post- structuralist line though mostly not taking that label are thinkers such as Gilles Deleuze , Michel Foucault , Claude Lefort , and Jean Baudrillard.
The Situationists were more influenced by Hegel; Guy Debord , in particular, moved a Marxist analysis of commodity fetishism to the realm of consumption, and looked at the relation between consumerism and dominant ideology formation. Another debate developed around the distinct criticisms of liberal political theory made by Michael Walzer , Michael Sandel and Charles Taylor.
The liberal - communitarian debate is often considered valuable for generating a new set of philosophical problems, rather than a profound and illuminating clash of perspective. Bell argue that, contra liberalism, communities are prior to individuals and therefore should be the center of political focus. Communitarians tend to support greater local control as well as economic and social policies which encourage the growth of social capital.
A pair of overlapping political perspectives arising toward the end of the 20th century are republicanism or neo- or civic-republicanism and the capability approach.
The resurgent republican movement aims to provide an alternate definition of liberty from Isaiah Berlin 's positive and negative forms of liberty, namely "liberty as non-domination. To a liberal, a slave who is not interfered with may be free, yet to a republican the mere status as a slave, regardless of how that slave is treated, is objectionable.