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Not infrequently, a big, round-crowned crab tree laden with numberless small red or yellow apples, can be seen in the autum in the middle of a deciduous forest, as for example in the Susita valley between Cimpuri and Soveja. It is a surprising and most delightful sight, just like the sight of a cornelian cherry in blossom in the spring a patch of bright yellow amidst dark, leafless trees or the sight of wild cherry-trees with leaves of flaming red, in the autumn.
See V. XXXV XXXVI , p. The diminutive of cornet, corndlel, meaning a cornel-tree copse, is a frequent toponym throughout the Romanian territory, including Cornhjel, on the River Mostistea Ilfov county , which was a town in the days of Matei Basarab Giurescu, Corndjelul. O Two old Wallachian monasteries were thus named one in the DImbovita county and the other in the Old valley. The latter, which is the foundation of Mircea the Old, changed its name to Cozia.
The numerous wild fruittrees occasionally grafted by a benevolent soul account for the large number of place-names derived therefrom 41, such as Peri? We should conclude to a powerful, predominanly Latin heritage in the terminology related to forests, the same as in that related to agriculture, vine-growing and stock breeding". With reference to the latter domains, see Const. Giurescu and Dinu C. Giurescu, History of the Romanians, Bucharest, , p.
When the Roman administration and army withdrew from Dacia, a new period beg,an in the life of the Daco-Romans. Most of them, that is the peasants ploughmen, shepherds and stock breeders and the poor and middle townspeople craftsmen and small merchants stayed behind. The rich alone left the country as they could live anywhere with their money. A modus vivendi was comparatively easily established between the remaining people and the new masters the migratory populations who needed grain and the animal products supplied by the Daco-Romans.
The first to come were mostly Carpi, i. The towns had more hardships to go through as their glitter and wealth lured the migratory populations. Many townspeople consequently retired to the neighbouring villages but there were plenty left in the smaller houses and the huts on the outskirts, as shown by the archaeological excavations at Alba Julia Apulum , Sarmizegetusa, Moigrad Porolissum and other centres.
The villages got off more lightly : the peasants took their scanty property and, driving their sheep and cattle before them, went into the forests in the vicinity where they took shelter until the onrush subsided. If their cottages or huts had been burnt or pulled down in the meantime, they were not long in putting them up again : there was plenty of wood and rough-casting did not lake long.
During the long interval of almost a thousand years that elapsed between the Romans' withdrawal from Dacia and the emergence of the Wallachian state, forests played a main part in maintaining the continuity of the Romanic population left of the Danube, throughout the Carpatho-Danubian area, from the Tisa to the seashore. There has been and still is much talk about "the withdrawal into the mountains," about the shelter provided by the Carpathians throughout that thousand years' interval.
But, it should be noted 20 www.
Since forests covered not only the mountains but also the hills and a fair part of the plain, the Romanic population was able to survive also over the hilly and flat areas. It is significant that the Slays designated by Vla. There they found the Romanic population, the Vlachs, in numbers, practising agriculture in the clearings, mills and fish ponds, and sel- ling their surplus products in the neighbouring boroughs 1.
It is quite likely that the other name coined by the Slays to designate the extensive forest north of Bucharest, Vliisia, should have the same meaning the land of the Vlachs since both Wallachian.
In southern Transylvania, a document was issued to the Saxons in , which makes mention of "the forest of the Romanians and of the Petchenegs" sylva Blacorum et Bissenorum 3 , thus again pointing to the link between our people and forests. As to the Petchenegs, who were cattle breeders and people of the steppe, it is very likely that having lived side by side with the Romanians for some three and a half centuries, they had come to use forests as the Roma- nians did, i.
Consequently, we should speak of the withdrawal of the population into the forests rather than into the mountains.
Co-inhabitation with the Slays and the latter's assimilation by our forebears have caused a number of terms of Slavic origin referring to forests to become part of the Romanian language. On the Vlasi of the Balkan Peninsula see N. It is from the Slav term for alder-tree elha - and its derivative, the adjective elhov, meaning "with alders" or "alder grove," that the Romanian name of the river Ilfov is derived. It was later adopted for the county as well.
Likewise, from kien Slav for maple , the adjective klenov was formed, of alder, with alders , whence the Romanian place name Cleanov, just as from the Slav dren cornel-tree drenov was formed, which means of cornel trees or of the cornel, whence the Romanian place-name Dranov.
Likewise, the blackberry bushes along the river banks account for the name of the Tutova, tut being the Old Slavic term for blackberries. Subsequently, a, county was named after the river. The Hungarian term for alder was eger, from which egeree alder grove was formed, which is the origin of the Transylvanian place name Aghires. Another term for alder grove was egerbegy, whence the Romanian place name Agirbici5. From the last migratory populations the Petchenegs and the Cumans who remained on our territory between ca.
Throughout the migration period, which lasted for about a, thousand years, the forest-covered area could not, in our opinion, have decreased compared with what it had been when the Romans withdrew from Dacia, for the population was still sparse and there was room enough for them.
It is true that some woodland had been cleared with pick, axe or spade, or by means of fire, but on the other hand the forest was spreading in places where corn or hay had formerly grown.
There are no contemporary records testifying to this double process, but terms in the language and subsequent documents point to the procedure used in forest clearing. There were large beech forests that spread from the Carpathians to the river Siret and a small beech forest between the rivers Siret and Prut Hurmuzaki Densusianu, Documents, I. Fifteenth century Moldavian documents often mention the beech forests in the northern part of the country designating them by the name of bucovind.
It is from this noun that the Austrians devised the proper name of the province they annexed in See Tordan, Romanian Toponymy, p. The names of the rivers Dimbovita and Dimbovnic are also connected to the "oak. The term laz of Slavic origin from laz has exactly the same meaning as rune. We must conclude that the old Slays, who lived side by side with the Daco-Romans and were in time assimilated by them, practised forest clearing also.
On 16 September , a piece of land was sold at Cote0i Rimnicul Sarat county. In the bill of sale, it is stated : "and I have also given away the clearing [laz] at Gule0i" today Gole0i 9. The terms curaturif and setcciturei or seaturei for forest clearing were coined at a later date, after the Romanian language had crystallized.
In consequence, standing trees dried off were subsequently felled. The timber thus obtained was already dry and could be used straight off to be con- verted into sawn timber or to be made into any kind of objects.
In the early 19th century there were villages named Curatura in a D. XVI, vol. II, p. Giurescu, Romanian Principalities, p. XXIII, p. The terms jariste and arsild have a special meaning : they imply that the cleared area had been obtained by burning down the trees.
The vine-growing village of Jaristea Vrancea county is well known. The Great Geographical Dictionary, volume I, issued in , lists no less than 47 place names including the word Aria. A number of 15th and 16th century documents refer to forest clearing : they disclose the way it was done along the thousand-year migration period.
The Bucharest deed of 20 March , by which Prince Radu Paisie confirms the title of Mircea and his sons to the estate of the "Goldwasher's Glade" shows that as the land had been full of trees he took great pains to clear it, "with axe and pick and fire.
In Transylvania and occasionally beyond the Carpathians in Moldavia, the word oas derived from the Hungarian ovas ayas is used for clearing 17 Tara Oasului the Oas Land is consequently the land of clearings since much land had been cleared in former times in the great forests that covered the area.
Concerning the term sdcdturcl see also H. Forests'role in the country's defence and as places of refuge. Forests have played a significant part in the battles fought in defence of the country, being an important "ally" of the Romanian armies. Considering the usual numerical superiority of the opponent armies, whether Turkish, Hungarian, Polish or ever Tartar, a superiority which gave our armies no chance of success in the open field where the disproportion of forces was plainly visible, our great voivodes resorted to the shelter of forests, which obliterated this disproportion : surprise attacks thus became possible, defence operations were easier to carry through, and if a retreat was necessary, it was a covered retreat.
First and foremost, we would refer to the decisive battle fought at Posada , which secured the independence of the young Wallachian state founded by Basarab I, the first of the Basarab dynasty. The reasons that led to the war between Wallachia's Prince and Charles Robert, King of Hungary, are not very well known ; two of Charles Robert's officials seem to be responsible for it as they wanted to have for their own Basarab's country or at least the Severin Banat.
The war started in the autumn ; the Hungarian army, advancing over a country which, according to an old custom, had been laid waste, was unable to revictual, and consequently suffered from hunger "the great hunger" as the Hungarian chronicler puts it.
And so, having reached "the citadel on the. On the way home, the Hungarian army marched through a long, narrow valley whose sheer slopes were covered with forests. It was a calamitous four days November Charles Robert's men fell in numbers, the seal of the kingdom was lost, and the king himself escaped by the skin of his teeth, changing his clothes with those of one of his faithful servants so that he might extricate himself from the scramble unobserved.
The details set forth above were recorded in a contemporaneous Hungarian chronicle, Chronicon Pictum Vindobonense, so entitled on account of the miniatures illustrating the texts, two of which deal with the battle,. The site of this memorable battle, which proved the strength of the new Romanian state and at the same time enabled it to develop freely, is not known for certain. A number of historians locate it between Chnpulung and Bran, at a place named Posada.
It is consequently more likely for the battle to have been fought between Curtea de Arges and Sibiu, most probably at Lovistea.
A similar battle was fought several decades later, during the reign of Vladislav I Prince Mien. Again it was the Hungarian army that attacked. In the autumn of , some time alter October 13th, that army which, according to the Chronicle of John of was made up of noblemen, Szecklers and of many outstanding warriors under the command of Nicholas Lackfi, Prince of Transylvania, crossed the mountains with the intent to attack the rear of Vlaicu's army, which had to face a second Hungarian army about to cross the Danube 2.
Against the army that was coming down from the mountains, Vlaicu had sent Dragomir, commander of the Dhnbovita citadel. After a first clash during which he fared none too well, Dragomir withdrew, luring the opposing army into a1 wooded district full of dangerous places.
Sehwandtner, Vienna, , p. And after the Hungarians had dispersed and taken to their heels, coming upon muddy and swampy places, many of them were killed by the Romanians. Few of them escaped with great peril for their person and with loss of property. The body of Prince Nicholas having been taken from the Romanians following heavy fighting, was carried to Hungary to be buried at Strigonia [Esztergom].
It must have been in a forest-clad district of Wallachia, perhaps where the hills meet the plain, considering that the pursuit took place in "muddy and swampy" places. Giving an account of Bayazid's war against Prince Mircea the Old it is impossible to specify whether it was the war of or of the Byzantine chronicler Laonicus Chalcocondylas states that, having first sent the women and children to safe places in the mountains, "Mircea with his army followed in Bayazid's track over the oak forests of the country, which are numerous and cover the country everywhere, so that it was not easy for the enemies to go about and for the country to be conquered.
It took place in the great Crasna Forest south of Vaslui, not far from the village of Crasna. The road followed by the Polish host traversed this forest, and that is where Bogdan's army lay in wait for it.
This is the account the Moldavian chronicle gives of it : "So when they reached the heart of the forest, Prince Bogdan's army rushed upon the Poles' waggons, and the Poles, putting up a defence, made a narrow escape with much loss of property and life.
And when the other Polish army prepared to join in the fight, the whole of Prince Bogdan's army came up, with many banners and long horns, without any cavalry, but with many foot soldiers.
Seeing which, the Poles prepared for war and putting Prince Alexandra in the middle Tyrnaviae, ed. Schwandtner, , pars I. On the other hand the infantry, fighthing in the sheltering forest, shooting their arrows from behind the tree trunks, was to be feared, with a definite advantage over the opponent.
We believe young Stephen, Bogdan's son, who was to come to Moldavia's throne seven years later, to have taken part in the battle of Crasna.
He was to remember that battle of his youth on the occassion of the war he himself waged on the Poles in , when he was to apply a similar method, which had already become classical.
The latter had entered Moldavia with hostile intent and had besieged the stronghold of Suceava, though unsuccessfully. According to an old custom in these parts, Stephen had ordered that all provisions and fodder should be concealed and that whatever could not be concealed should be burnt.
At the same time the northward roads had been blocked so that no food or fodder could be got from Poland either. Before long, John Albert's army was starving. And so the Polish king was glad to have the Prince of Transylvania who in the meantime had come to support Stephen with 12, men mediate a peace. Peace was concluded but with the express condition that the Poles should withdraw the way they had come and not along any other way, so as to preclude further damage to the country.
But no food could be got "the way they had come," so the Poles had to follow another route by the towns of Siret and CernAnti, which ran through the Cosmin Forest.
When the Polish army was half way through the forest, the Moldavians brought down over them trees that had been almost cut through, but still stood up and attacked staunchly 26 October There being no place for them to flee to and unable to spread out because of the narrow space available, the Poles were cut down, as Charles Robert's Hungarians had been in the past.
It was only writh great difficulty that the king managed to make his way to CernAnti, where another battle WaS fought. Defeated once more, few of John Albert's soldiers saw their country again 6. We think there is nothing to prevent us from admitting it. The details Neculce provides on the way prisoners were dealt with do not seem to be fictitious. A previous study showed that many of the traditions recorded by Neculce do not tamper with historical facts or that they contain, at least a grain of truth 8 After the battle of Baia 15 December , Matthew Corvinus, King of Hungary, had to withdraw hurriedly, as he had been wounded by a three-point arrow.
On reaching the mountains, how- ever, he "found the road blocked by felled trees" as the Polish chronicler Dlugosz tells us. So he set fire to his waggons and belongings and buried fifty cannons for fear they should fall into the Moldavians' hands 9. Forests played an important part also in another of Stephen the Great's victories, that of Yaslui January, The prince had chosen a forest-covered district with a marshy riverside wood on one side. Behind that wood, Stephen had stationed a detachment whose trumpets and fifes were intended to lure the enemy into the marshes.
And this actually happened. While the Turkish army plodd- ed their way thither fighting the mud, with cannons floundering in it, a corps of Moldavian soldiers under cover in the neighbouring woods attacked their flanks and a third corps their rear, which caused Soliman the Eunuch to withdraw, and the with.
The pursuit lasted for four days "from Tuesday to Friday night," as the chronicle states, the Turkish army "wading through thick mud. Seldom had such a disastrous defeat been sustained, as the Turkish chroniclers themselves admit. One of them, Seadedin, states : "Most of the Islam soldiers perished.. II, Leipzig, , p. Albl, the Moldavia,ns fighthing desperately and being ultimately crushed, the withdrawal was also effected in the shelter of the forest 26 July ".
Forests provided safety in case of withdrawal - a significant illustration. During that battle, seeing the impetuous onrush of the Cossack cavalry, the Moldavian infantry "made a bee-line from the ford [Jijia's ford] to the copse on the hill, but Timush's cavalry overtook them on.
At Citlugitreni, there were small wooded heights forming a natural shelter behind the position ta,ken up by the prince, facing the swampy valley of the river Neajlov. The way ran over the wooden bridge that spanned the river and subsequently between those heights so that the Turkish army could only advance in a column, with a narrow front.
While Michael, at the head of his army, in a f ulgurating counterattack repelled the Turks who had crossed the bridge, a detachment four hundred strong under the command of Captain Cocea, attacked from the rear under cover of the forest. The Turks panicked and withdrew in disorder.
Sinan Pasha himself was pitched from the bridge into the swamp and would have found his death had a Rumelian veteran not saved him, carrying him on his back". We learn from the latter that Sinan Pasha had ordered the fleet made up of four frigates under the command of Mami Pasha to sail down the Danube in order to take on board the Tartar Khan who was to assist the Turks and "feared the dangers he would have come up against in the many forests that adorned the country.
Ibidem, p. Chronicle of Moldavia, in Works, I,.
And indeed the galleys were fired upon at that spot. Sustaining losses and being in danger of sinking, the frigates withdrew behind an island on the right bank of the. Danube and reached Rustchuk three days after 1 6. Those men also suffered at the hands of the robbers who "roamed the forests, attacking the people hiding there" ".
We should also bring out the part played by the Tigheciu forest in the country's defence against the Tartars, as shown by Dimitrie Cantemir in Descriptio Moldaviae. Nicolae Iorga PDF Document Iorga, Nicolae Stoicescu, Nicolae Publication date Any [file:filename description] generates a file download link.
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