A World of Prose for CSEC book. Read 22 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Compiled with the approval of the Caribbean Examinations. Get this from a library! A World of prose for CXC. [David Williams; Hazel Simmons -McDonald; Caribbean Examinations Council.;]. A World of Prose for CSEC by David Williams - rattribillvordo.tk English 2 Pdf World Cup World Bar Association World Atlas Ags World History World.
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A World of Prose for CXC by David Williams and Mark McWatt (From previous Grade). Download free ebooks online: share any PDF ebook on. a world of prose cxc. Media Publishing eBook, ePub, Kindle. PDF View ID ae38e3. Oct 11, By Erle Stanley Gardner. A World Of Prose Cxc. Summary. Thu, 25 Oct GMT a world of prose for pdf - A World of Prose for. CXC by David Williams and Mark McWatt (From previous Grade). Download.
The absent curriculum represents a set of choices about the knowledge, values and prejudices of those who have designed it. It is a symbol of power and ideology; a form of hegemony that imposes ideas. The existence and persistence of the absent curriculum poses a serious threat to the rights of minority and marginalised groups and, ultimately, democratic systems Freire, ; Topping and Maloney, An absent curriculum would be examined for its content, concepts, themes, issues, problems and concerns from various cultural perspectives Ahonen, In this transformative approach, students learn to think critically and reflect on the viewpoints of different groups in the society based on culture, gender and class.
The affected minority or invisible groups may engage in a struggle for social justice and ethnic equality rather than passively accept and submit to an educational system that is oppressive. Methodology The methodology used in this research is based on content analysis which is an umbrella term applied to a set of diverse techniques.
Content analysis is mainly a quantitative research method used for the objective, systematic study of the content of communication. This research technique can also be qualitative in approach which makes it a mixed-method of conducting research.
Content analysis should extend to more than a mere listing of items; it should be comparative in its orientation. In this research, content analysis was used to examine the written text i. Information in the syllabi relating to ethnicity and country of origin the variables were identified and categorised. In the context of the syllabi, ethnicity was categorised as Black, Caucasian, Mixed and Indian.
Information from the syllabi was also identified and categorised according to the country of origin of the playwright, poet or novelist.
The analysis was applied only to the manifest content of the data e. India, indentureship i. The results of the classification were tabulated, evaluated, 8 and are presented below in a qualitative narrative and quantitative statistical form. The results of the content analysis of the CXC Literature and History syllabi is a reflection of the values, attitudes and politics of Caribbean society see Delgato However, English B Literature is compulsory only until Form 3.
This decline is unfortunate because the centrality of Literature allows readers to understand the psychological, social, historical and cultural world through imagination. Literature is a most potent force in allowing us to enter a world of experience imagined by another person. These imaginary worlds will be shared in part by the immediate social and cultural experiences of the writers, and will bear the imprint of the historical time and circumstances in which they are written Bleach, , p.
In the suggested reading list of entries for authors or editors, only seven. No Indian playwright, poet, novelist or short-story writer was chosen, although Indians and PIO form the majority ethnic group in Trinidad and Guyana, as well as the largest minority group in Jamaica, Grenada, St.
Vincent and St. Not even 11 recommended was the Trinidad-born writer, V. Naipaul, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in India was not selected in the prescribed list although Indians constitute the second populous country in the world with 1. Not even recommended was Rabindranath Tagore of India who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in with his poetry anthology, Geetanjali.
There is only one writer from India. Lucian - Kendel Hippolyte. Modern Drama Unit 1 — Module 2 a. British Poetry b. Post-Colonial Unit 2 — Module 2 a. Caribbean Prose — Novels b. American d. Post-Colonial Unit 2 — Module 3 a. British Prose — Novels b. Post-Colonial ii. In the secondary schools, it is sometimes offered as a subject from Forms 1 to 3, and even when available, it is offered only occasionally at the CSEC level Joseph, ; Stephens, History should be an important subject in any curriculum in any part of the world.
History allows students to understand how the past has shaped the present, and the interplay between continuity and the change of ideas, behaviour and institutions.
The study of history contributes to the social, cultural, religious, economic and political preservation and development of a society.
History provides data on how communities, societies and nations have interacted with others locally, regionally and globally. Studying history should prevent the reoccurrence of mistakes of the past. Indians constitute an overwhelming majority of arrivals among all the other ethnic groups coming to the Caribbean after the abolition of slavery.
Number of Arrivals in Ethnic Groups — History Figure 5 — Bar chart showing the number arrivals to the Caribbean by ethnic groups , , , Number of Arrivals , , , , , , 50, 0 Indians Liberated Africans Madeirans Chinese Ethnic groups 17 Figure 5 illustrates that the number of Indian arrivals after Emancipation in the Caribbean were However, the period cannot adequately document the establishment and development of Indo-Caribbean Peasantry because Indians acquired their own land after the end of Indentureship Indians also bought their own land with their savings.
They were also granted land by the colonial government in Trinidad and Guyana in exchange for the return passage to India. On these private lands, Indians cultivated sugar cane, cocoa, rice and vegetables, and reared cattle Greenidge, Module 2 concentrates on African Peoples chattel slavery, trans-Atlantic trade in Africans, anti- slavery rebellions, the Haitian Revolution, abolition and emancipation.
No attention is given to Indians and Indentureship which has been described as a new system of slavery. Unit 1, Module 3, Theme 1 mentions Indians among the Chinese and Portuguese in the context of settlement and citizenship.
However, Indians should not be lumped with the Chinese and Portuguese. Indians should have been categorised as an independent sub-theme because they constituted an overwhelming majority of arrivals , when compared to the Chinese 20, and Portuguese Rogers, The themes listed are European activities in Africa and the Americas, Atlantic trade on West African societies and economies, changing West African responses to European contact, and trade in African captives.
The suggested reading resources include: 1 How Europe underdeveloped Africa, and 2 Africa and Africans in the making of the Atlantic World, No theme addressed European activities in India and China; Asian responses to European contact; trade in Asian labourers; and European trade in India in tea, silks, cotton, and spices.
It must be remembered that the European explorer, Christopher Columbus, was in search for a shorter trade route to India that led to the discovery and occupation of the Americas, which resulted in the African slave trade and slavery.
The route passed through different empires, kingdoms, reigns and societies, enriching the journeys and destinations with new cultures, religions, languages and merchandise. CXC must transcend its boundaries beyond the Atlantic and Africans to include Asia and Asians in global transformations.
Past and current world events must be understood from multiple national perspectives, and both minority and nonminority points of view 19 must be considered in interpreting local and national events Bennett, , p.
Rather, it recommends a complimentary, inclusive and holistic view that challenges the master narrative of history outlined by the CXC. The Minority African-American Experience In commemoration of the recognition of the First Peoples of Trinidad and Tobago, the President of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago said recently that no race should feel superior or inferior to the other Ali, , p. He added that the First Peoples would soon get the respect and honour they deserve.
However, the reality has been the promotion of ethnic and racial individual and institutional discrimination in the USA. The result has been white superiority and black inferiority in the society which has brought about the marginalization of African-Americans and other minority groups Pawley, If you have to lie about any real role here, if you have to pretend that I hoed all that cotton just because I loved you, then you have done something to yourself.
Like the minority Black community in the USA, Indians in the Caribbean have been questioning the results of the dominant strategy of assimilation creolisation and have been advocating a policy of genuine multiculturalism. In both the USA and the Caribbean, the dominant oligarchies remain blind to, or live in self-denial of, the existence of ethnic marginalisation and exclusion 20 in the curriculum which really cheats the society of being truly just, progressive and democratic.
Conclusion — The Struggle for Social and Ethnic Justice Inclusive education is multi-cultural in both theory and practice. At its core, inclusive education has a multi-cultural curriculum which emphasises basic human similarities and differences in history, ancestry and circumstances. File , p. A multi-cultural curriculum in the Caribbean plays a critical role in inscribing a sense of identity in the region and should intersect with the experiences of minority students identified with Hinduism, Islam, Orisha, and other minority faiths Tsolidis, , p.
Inclusive education prepares students for a globalised world propelled by advancing technologies, international trade, and documented and undocumented migrations. Inclusive education helps students acquire knowledge and appreciation of cultural diversity by shattering myths and stereotypes associated with race, religion, culture and gender. Inclusive education assists to establish social justice and combat prejudice, discrimination, racism, cultural elitism, religious bigotry, political repression, violence, genocide, sexism and classism Bennett, , p.
More than one ethnic group living together in small societies in the Caribbean in peace and harmony must not be taken for granted Worrell, Minority groups living in these small societies may not protest against cultural domination because of the fear of criticism by dominant vocal groups.
Some of these minority groups may become almost invisible to other groups because of their silence. But social and ethnic justice demands social action to combat discrimination and racism.
A multicultural education can result in increased knowledge, appreciation and acceptance of cultural diversity. A multicultural education can debunk myths and stereotypes about race, religion and culture and influence better behaviour and attitudes Bennett, Education, therefore, has a huge responsibility in combating all kinds of isms that degrade individuals and groups.
End Notes 1 The number of mixed persons of Indian origin in Belize could not have been calculated because that Central American English-speaking country is the most ethnically diverse society in the region with all types of miscegenation. Acknowledgements I wish to thank the following persons who have contributed to the completion of this paper: Kaajal Teemal, Nandika Ragbir, Shivali Naraynsingh and Ramona Harripersad.
References Ahonen, S.
Politics of identity through history curriculum: Narratives of the past for social exclusion - or inclusion? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 33 2 , Ali, A. Prez Carmona: The world in recognising First Peoples. Newsday, p. Armstrong, F and Barton L. In Barton, L. Armstrong, eds.
Dordrecht: Springer. Banks, J. Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Barrow, Robin New Jersey: Barnes and Noble Books. Comprehensive Multicultural Education: Theory and Practice 7th ed.
Boston: Pearson Education Ltd. Bleach, Jane Craft and G. Bardell, eds. New York: Harper Educational Series. Booth, T. Developing Inclusive Teacher Education.
New York: RoutledgeFalmer. BS Bureau of Statistics. Guardian News and Media Limited. Caribbean Examinations Council. History of CXC. The Census Demographic Report. Trinidad and Tobago. Census May-June Basic Characteristics: Persons: Ethnic Group. Introduction to Educational research.
Considerations of multicultural science and curriculum reform: A content analysis of state-adopted biology textbooks in Florida Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Something which is very much the case when it comes to Paul. He is an unhappy child based solely on what he perceives are his inadequacies. At no stage does Paul think of the things that he is good at rather his main focus is on how he is not as good as Benjy at things.
There is also a sense that Paul is afraid of failure or at least what he perceives to be failure. The walk at night time with his father and Benjy being an example. Yet at the same time Paul wants to make a connection with Benjy. Even if it means that he feels as though he is second best to Benjy. This too may be important as Wickham could be highlighting how deep and strong the bond is between Paul and Benjy. Though Paul may hate Benjy.
He still wants to be his friend. He wants to have a loving relationship with his brother. If this is the case then Paul will never be happy as he will always be looking to see if he can better Benjy rather than living each day as it comes.
There is also some symbolism in the story which may be important. The angelic appearance of the tree during the day in many ways mirrors how Paul lives his life. By having Paul playing with the leather Wickham could be symbolically suggesting that Paul is making a new pair of shoes to walk in. Something that is clearer to the reader when Paul attacks Benjy. The fact that Mac is unaware of what is happening and thinks that both boys are playing may also be important as it could suggest that the battle that Paul feels he is facing with Benjy is not a public battle but a personal battle.
The end of the story is also interesting as Wickham appears to be exploring the theme of fear. Benjy is afraid of Paul after he threatens him with the sharp awl. For the first time in the story Benjy shows fear.